Tag Archives: Créditos de consumo

Crédito, deuda y gubernamentalidad financiera en Chile

[Nuevo artículo de Felipe González en la Revista Mexicana de Sociología 80, núm. 4 (octubre – diciembre, 2018)]

Crédito, deuda y gubernamentalidad financiera en Chile

Revista Mexicana de Sociología 80, núm. 4 (octubre – diciembre, 2018)

Felipe González López

Resumen: Este artículo desarrolla la idea de que el endeudamiento en Chile se ha convertido en una forma particular de “gobernar conductas” que puede describirse como “gubernamentalidad financiera”. Ésta se caracteriza por tres hechos fundamentales. Primero, las finanzas han servido como una política pública mediante la cual se posponen conflictos distributivos. Segundo, la financiarización consiste en “crear” sujetos económicamente viables a partir de hogares de ingresos bajos, para lo cual se clasifica y organiza la vida de los individuos. Y tercero, el manejo material y simbólico de las relaciones sociales de deuda se convierte en un elemento fundamental de la gobernabilidad democrática.

Disponible acá: Continue reading

Reducing default rates, the wealth gap, and inequality in access to housing by lending pension funds

[En Chile se ha discutido algo sobre el problema de que los trabajadores están forzados a cotizar en los fondos de pensions (AFPs) y después tienen que tomar prestado ese dinero para vivir, gastando mucho en los altos intereses, especialmente de las tarjetas de crédito de grandes tiendas. ¿No sería posible buscar mecanismos para devolver ese dinero a las familias para que puedan acumular riqueza sin perder su pensión? Comparto en este post una idea al respecto, se agradecen de antemano los comentarios, así como sugerencias de posibles colaboradores para desarrollar más el argumento. La propuesta está escrita de modo traducible a varios países, incluso aquellos con sistema de reparto en las pensiones, como EEUU. Mi idea es seguir desarrollando el argumento para luego mandarlo al foro de alguna revista de vivienda y urbanismo para estimular el debate al respecto.]

Think about this paradox: Low-income families put money into the financial market as pension savings, and they pay interest and mortgage insurances to obtain those savings, or rent to landlords who access those savings. Basically, by having their savings locked until retirement, they contribute to capitalists’ accumulation while they cannot accumulate wealth. Or put this the other way around. Low- and middle-income families cannot accumulate wealth, among other reasons, because (a) they cannot afford a down-payment to buy a home and drain their income in their rent, without accumulation; (b) if they can buy a home, they pay high interests because they are considered risky; and (3) may lose their home by defaulting on their mortgage. Yet, they have often saved more money than they needed to get the loan, prevent the default, and make them less-risky subjects of credit. Is there a way to prevent this cycle of capitalist appropriation of wealth by renting other people’s money?

I want to propose a policy solution to this problem that, while apparently reformist, challenges a major pattern of capitalist accumulation in our financialized economy. Continue reading

Créditos al consumo, cálculos y big data: José Ossandón en UNSAM

Cfp_Domesticizing Financial Economies_2_Mini-Conference SASE 2015_London

[Invitamos en enviar resúmenes a la mini-conferencia “Domesticizing Financial Economies, Part 2”: que formará parte de la Reunión de SASE 2015 que se llevará a cabo en Londres del 2 al de 5 Julio. La fecha límite para enviar resumenes es el 26 de enero. Cordialmente, Joe Deville, Jeanne Lazarus, Mariana Luzzi y José Ossandón]

Domesticizing Financial Economies, Part 2 will pursue the discussions started in at the 2014 annual SASE meeting at what has now become Domesticizing Financial Economies, Part 1. We invite papers that look at specific situations of monetary transaction, credit and domestic money management. Our starting point is that the use of even the most sophisticated financial products can be understood in the light of a close empirical description of their contexts of social ties and obligations, ways of calculating, devices and informational infrastructures. The highly specific and often domestic ways that monies circulate about come to matter greatly, including but not limited to the production and reproduction of inequalities and asymmetries of power. Rather than (or as well as) seeking to understand how financial economies are “economized”, to draw on a term used by Koray Çalışkan and Michel Callon, we are thus interested in work that explores how monetary transactions are woven into the fabric of the everyday and come to be “domesticized”. Continue reading

“My Story Has No Strings Attached”: Credit Cards, Market Devices, and a Stone Guest

[Los amigos del Institute for Money, Technology and Financial Inclusion- UC Irvine publicaron como documento de trabajo, la versión actual de un experimento sobre deudas y tarjetas de crédito en Chile del que ya hemos discutido acá]

My Story Has No Strings Attached”: Credit Cards, Market Devices, and a Stone Guest. José Ossandón

Abstract

In the retail industry, consumer credit is sometimes seen as a dangerous parasite that can become bigger than its host. Credit cards are marketing devices that aim at easing the attachment between consumers and goods. Credit cards are also value meters that trace every single transaction. Credit cards can even be “gardening” tools. Sowing is the name used in Chile’s retail industry to call the data management strategy that consists of extending the credit limit of low income customers depending on their payment behavior. Data on previous transactions and behavior replaces collateral. Credit cards are not only used by the persons whose names are on the cards; People borrow and loan their cards, or, more precisely, their cards’ credit limits. Credit cards do not trace behavior but hidden networks. Can social relations act as parasites on credit – uninvited guests whose host is already a parasite? This article tells the story of a study that started in the middle – credit cards – and slowly became a Serresian economic anthropology. Continue reading

Taylor Nelms reseña y discute “Las sospechas del dinero” de Ariel Wilkis

Portada Sospechas del Dinero[La categoría “debate” es una sección dedicada a discutir a partir de libros publicados por los contribuidores de Estudios de la Economía. En este post Taylor Nelms comenta Las Sospechas del Dinero: Moral y Economía en la Vida Popular de Ariel Wilkis (Paidos 2013). El debate a partir de este libro seguirá en unas semanas con un comentario de Felipe González y una respuesta a González y a Nelms por Ariel Wilkis. Un año atrás, Pablo Figueiro publicó esta muy completa reseña de Las Sospechas del Dinero que podrá servir como ayuda para quienes no han leído el libro aun]

Para empezar, quiero agradecer a José por la oportunidad de leer y ofrecer mis comentarios sobre el nuevo libro de Ariel Wilkis, y a Ariel por someterse a ellos. Espero que la conversación que surja de ellos resulte útil y fructífera.

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En su libro Las Sospechas del Dinero: Moral y Economía en la Vida Popular, Ariel Wilkis culmina su recorrido sobre los usos que hacen del dinero los habitantes de los barrios populares del Gran Buenos Aires con una negación y una admisión: que su libro “se encuentra lejos de añorar el viejo lenguaje de las ciencias sociales latinoamericanas,” aunque tampoco pretende “abandonar la historia de sus interrogantes y de sus apuestas” (175). De hecho, más allá de la forma innovadora en la cual el autor aborda la temática, hay algo gratamente, inesperadamente, tradicional en su investigación: su compromiso con el holismo sociológico. Continue reading

Mini-conference report: Domesticizing Financial Economies, SASE, Chicago

[Mariana Luzzi, Jeanne Lazarus y José Ossandón reflexionan sobre la mini-conferencia que organizaron en la última convención de SASE en Chicago. El eventó contó además con la participación de los colaboradores de EdlE, Magdalena Villarreal y Felipe González. La nota es en inglés pero, como siempre, comentarios en español y portugués son muy bienvenidos. Como parte de nuestra colaboración inter-redes publicamos este post conjuntamente con Charisma-Network]

We had the pleasure of co-organizing the mini-conference ‘Domesticizing Financial Economies: Knitting Fibers of Transaction, Algorithm, and Exchange’ which was part of the annual convention of the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics held in Chicago last July. We use this post to process some of the many elements discussed during the five sessions of the event. We will not attempt to summarize all the presentations (click here to see the full program), but we will focus instead on two more general issues taken from the papers and discussions that we believe extend the scope of the already rich existing research on social studies of credit and everyday money management.

Continue reading

Consuming Credit: Special Issue of Consumption Markets and Culture

[Copiamos esta noticia de los amigos de Charisma Network avisando del número especial recién publicado en Consumption Markets & Culture que podrá de interés de los lectores de este blog]

‘Consuming Credit’, a new Special Issue of Consumption Markets & Culture, has just been published. The collection is edited by Paul Langley and is populated, in its entirety, by members of the Charisma network. It can be accessed here.

Here is an edited extract from Paul’s introduction to the issue in which he also recounts some of the origins of Charisma:

While making credit available to make consumption possible has a very long history indeed, it is the consolidated mass markets and cultures of contemporary consumer credit that provide the focus for this special issue. Contemporary consumer credit comes in a diverse variety of forms and product ranges. This includes, for example, instalment plans for the dedicated purchase of automobiles and “big ticket” items; unsecured loans of all shapes and sizes, such as short-term and small “pay-day” loans; and the bank overdrafts and “revolving” lines of credit on credit cards that do not have to be completely repaid at the end of each month. The interest rates payable on consumer credit diverge greatly within and across product markets and between consumers, and fluctuate over time. And, although significant social and geographical exclusions, inequalities and differentiations remain as consumer credit markets become more established and entrenched, credit for consumption is today more readily and widely available (at a price) to individuals, families and households. Continue reading

Sociología del crédito y economía de las clases populares

La revista Mexicana de Sociología ha publicado el artículo ‘Sociología del crédito y economía de las clases populares’ del contribuidor de este blog Ariel Wilkis. Abajo link y resumen. Continue reading